The present study determined the relative contributions of diet and dust exposure from multiple microenvironments to PentaBDE body burden, and explored the role of hand wipes as a measure of personal exposure to PentaBDE. ªPentaBDEs in serum were correlated with dust from main living areas (r ) 0.42, p ) 0.02) and bedrooms (r ) 0.49, p )0.008), but not with dust from offices (r ) 0.22, p ) 0.25) or vehicles (r ) 0.20, p ) 0.41). The final regression model included variables for main living area dust and hand wipes, and predicted 55% of the variation in serum ªPentaBDE concentrations (p ) 0.0004). Diet variables were not significant predictors of ªPentaBDEs in serum. The authors concluded that the findings suggest that exposure to dust in the home environment may be the most important factor in predicting PentaBDE body burden in North Americans, and potential exposure pathways may involve PBDE residues on hands.