Implementation Evaluation of a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial to Promote the Use of Respiratory Protective Equipment Among Migrant Workers Exposed to Organic Solvents in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises


Background: While the effectiveness of several occupational healthcare interventions has been demonstrated, successful implementation of such programs among internal migrant workers (IMWs) in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) has been limited. This study aimed to evaluate the implementation of a three-arm cluster randomized controlled trial promoting respiratory protective equipment (RPE) use among IMWs exposed to organic solvents in SMEs and to assess the association between participants’ compliance and effectiveness of intervention. Methods: A total of 60 SMEs were randomly allocated to a low- or high-intensive intervention group, or a control group that did not receive any intervention. The low-intensive intervention group was subjected to both traditional and mHealth occupational health education. The high-intensive intervention group was subjected to the low-intensive group activities and peer education. The Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework was used to guide implementation evaluation of this 6-months intervention. Generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) were used to evaluate the effects of participants’ compliance with the intervention on the primary outcomes, regarding the appropriate use of RPE. Results: Of 4,527 potentially eligible participants, 1,211 individuals were enrolled, with a reach rate of 26.8%. Sixty of the 66 SMEs approached (90.9%) SMEs adopted the intervention. Fidelity to traditional education (100.0%) and mHealth intervention (97.5%) was higher than fidelity to peer education (20.0%). Peer leaders cited inconvenient time and unfamiliarity with peers as two major barriers to delivering peer education. Compared with the control group, IMWs who complied with the interventions in both groups were more likely to wear RPE appropriately [low-intensive group: adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.58, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.56-4.28; high-intensive group: aOR = 7.52, 95% CI: 3.72-15.23]. Most participants (95.8%) were satisfied with the program and 93.1% stated that they would maintain the use of RPE in the future. Conclusions: A multi-component occupational health intervention to promote the use of RPE among IMWs in SMEs was feasible and acceptable. Peer education had great potential to enhance the occupational health behavior of IMWs, and thus strategies to improve participants’ adherence to this component warrant further investigation. Clinical trial registration:, identifier: ChiCTR-IOR-15006929.

Authors: Chuangpeng Lin, Tongyang Li, Guanyang Zou, Xudong Li, Li Ling, Wen Chen
; Full Source: Frontiers in public health 2022 Jul 11;10:772632. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2022.772632.