The increasing demand for engineered nanomaterials induces potential harmful impact into aquatic ecosystems and is a great concern for freshwater biodiversity. The present study showed that enhancing toxic property of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) with copper (Cu) was responsible for the disruption of hormonal, hematological, and biochemical activities, in Clarias gariepinus. The study revealed that C. gariepinus intravenously injected with safe concentrations of TiO2 NPs (3μg g) and Cu (2.5 μg g) alone and binary mixtures (TiO2 NPs (3μg g) + Cu (2.5μg g)) for a period of 96h remarkably changed hormonal activities and hematological and biochemical indices of the fish. Our findings indicated that both chemicals accumulated in vital organs (the brain, serum, heart, gonad, liver, gills, serum, and kidney) and the presence of TiO2 NPs enhanced the bioavailability of copper. Fish exposed to TiO2 NPs alone significantly increased thyroxine (T4) and further decreased triidothyronine (T3). In addition, the binary mixtures showed antagonistic effects on both hormones. The hematological indices (WBC, RBC, HGt, MCV, MCH, MCHC, and Hct) were altered in all treatment groups. Decrease in WBC, RBC, HGt, Hct, and MCV were observed. Furthermore, the co-exposure further decreased WBC (60.28%), RBC (47.10%), HGt (75.99%), Hct (25.34%), and MCV (16.18%), in contrast, MCH and MCHC increased by of 2 folds, respectively. Metabolic enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) showed significant (p<0.05) increase, with additive effect in co-exposure. However, the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity decreased significantly in co-exposure. Significant (p<0.05) decrease of antioxidants, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), and metallothionein (Met) was observed in all the treatments with additive effect of 64.9%, 30.77%, and 91.31% in SOD, GST, and CAT, respectively. However, there was an increase in lipid peroxidation (MDA) in all treated fish. The results indicate that combined mixture influences the accumulation, hormonal, hematological, and biochemical factors which could affect the health of the fish.
Authors: Moise Matouke Matouke, Hussaina Mohammed Sanusi, Abalaka Samson Eneojo
; Full Source: Environmental science and pollution research international 2021 Jul 13. doi: 10.1007/s11356-021-15148-y.