Irritant-Induced Chronic Cough Triggers: A Scoping Review and Clinical Checklist

2021-05-06

Purpose The primary aim of this review was to identify environmental irritants known to trigger chronic cough through the life span and develop a comprehensive clinically useful irritant checklist. Method A scoping review was conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Extension for Scoping Reviews, checklist, and explanation. English-language, full-text resources were identified through Medline, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global. Results A total of 1,072 sources were retrieved; of these, 109 were duplicates. Titles of abstracts of 963 articles were screened, with 295 selected for full-text review. Using the exclusion and inclusion criteria listed, 236 articles were considered eligible and 214 different triggers were identified. Triggers were identified from North America, Europe, Africa, Asia, and Australia. Occupational exposures were also delineated. Conclusions A clinically useful checklist of both frequently encountered triggers and idiosyncratic or rare triggers was developed. The clinical checklist provides a unique contribution to streamline and standardize clinical assessment of irritant-induced chronic cough. The international scope of this review extends the usefulness of the clinical checklist to clinicians on most continents.

~tPotential Environmental Health Risk Analysis of Neonicotinoids and a Synergist

The extensive use of neonicotinoid pesticides has led to their widespread presence in the environment, resulting in considerable safety risks to the ecosystem and human health. In this study, we investigated the biotransformation behavior of a cocktail of multiple neonicotinoids and piperonyl butoxide (PBO) synergist in vivo and their potential environmental health risk. It was found that neonicotinoids with a cyano group, such as acetamiprid and thiacloprid, tended to accumulate in liver and spleen tissues, while others with nitro groups (imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, clothianidin, dinotefuran, and nitenpyram) were mostly excreted in urine. In the presence of the synergist PBO, the metabolism of neonicotinoids in vivo changed, mainly through the nitro reduction pathway, while a low abundance of related metabolites was observed in the conventional hydroxylation and demethylation metabolic pathways, due to inhibition of CYP450 enzymes by the synergist. Furthermore, DNA methylation damage in vivo was exacerbated by the induction of hydroxylamine metabolites formed in the intermediate process of neonicotinoid metabolism with the synergistic effect of PBO, which resulted in a higher level of the O6-methyldeoxyguanosine (O6-medG) biomarker in the liver. Therefore, during the comprehensive evaluation of pesticide environmental risks, attention should be paid not only to the co-exposure mode under real environmental conditions but also to the potential risks of intermediate metabolism and related intermediate metabolites. This study provides a referential strategy and theoretical support for the health risk assessment of co-exposure of chemicals.

~tEnvironmental impact and human health risks of air pollutants near a large chemical/petrochemical complex: Case study in Tarragona, Spain

Chemical industries and oil refineries are known emission sources of environmental contaminants, such as metals/metalloids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), among others. Based on the toxicological potential of these pollutants, harmful health effects can be expected for the population living near these facilities. One of the largest chemical/petrochemical complexes in Europe is located in Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain). In the last two decades, a number of investigations aimed at assessing the environmental impact of air pollutants potentially emitted by this industrial complex have been carried out. The present paper is a review of the available scientific information on the levels of air pollutants related with the activities of this chemical/petrochemical complex. Although there are currently some data on the environmental burdens of metals/metalloids, PAHs, VOCs and PCDD/Fs, there is an evident lack of specific biological monitoring studies on human health. Taking into account the amount of chemicals released to air and their toxicity, it is essential to perform an in-depth analysis of the current health status of the population living in Tarragona County.

Authors: Mary J Sandage, Elizabeth S Ostwalt, Lauren H Allison, Grace M Cutchin, Mariah E Morton, Shelby C Odom
; Full Source: American journal of speech-language pathology 2021 May 14;1-31. doi: 10.1044/2021_AJSLP-20-00362.
; Authors: Liwei Xu, Xinxin Xu, Lingling Guo, Zhongxing Wang, Xiaoling Wu, Hua Kuang, Chuanlai Xu
; Full Source: Environmental science & technology 2021 May 13. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.1c00872.
; Authors: Joaquim Rovira, Martí Nadal, Marta Schuhmacher, José L Domingo
; Full Source: The Science of the total environment 2021 May 6;787:147550. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147550.