Humans are potentially exposed to a large amount of chemicals present in the environment and in the workplace. In the European Human Biomonitoring initiative (Human Biomonitoring for the European Union = HBM4EU), acrylamide, mycotoxins (aflatoxin B1, deoxynivalenol, fumonisin B1), diisocyanates (4,4′-methylenediphenyl diisocyanate, 2,4- and 2,6-toluene diisocyanate), and pyrethroids were included among the prioritized chemicals of concern for human health. For the present literature review, the analytical methods used in worldwide biomonitoring studies for these compounds were collected and presented in comprehensive tables, including the following parameter: determined biomarker, matrix, sample amount, work-up procedure, available laboratory quality assurance and quality assessment information, analytical techniques, and limit of detection. Based on the data presented in these tables, the most suitable methods were recommended. According to the paradigm of biomonitoring, the information about two different biomarkers of exposure was evaluated: a) internal dose = parent compounds and metabolites in urine and blood; and b) the biologically effective = dose measured as blood protein adducts. Urine was the preferred matrix used for deoxynivalenol, fumonisin B1, and pyrethroids (biomarkers of internal dose). Markers of the biological effective dose were determined as hemoglobin adducts for diisocyanates and acrylamide, and as serum-albumin-adducts of aflatoxin B1 and diisocyanates. The analyses and quantitation of the protein adducts in blood or the metabolites in urine were mostly performed with LC-MS/MS or GC-MS in the presence of isotope-labeled internal standards. This review also addresses the critical aspects of the application, use and selection of biomarkers. For future biomonitoring studies, a more comprehensive approach is discussed to broaden the selection of compounds.
Authors: Gabriele Sabbioni, Argelia Castaño, Marta Esteban López, Thomas Göen, Hans Mol, Margaux Riou, Romuald Tagne-Fotso
; Full Source: Environment international 2022 Aug 6;169:107458. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2022.107458.