Long-term exposure of high concentration heavy metals induced toxicity, fatality, and gut microbial dysbiosis in common carp, Cyprinus carpio


Heavy metals (HMs) in an aquatic environment mainly affects fish, and thus, fish are convenient pollution bio-indicators. In this study, the toxic effects of HM mixture (chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu)) in 0 mg/L to 3.2 mg/L concentration range was investigated in Cyprinus carpio (28 days). HM accumulation, histopathology, oxidative stress, and gut microbial changes were evaluated. HMs accumulated in the order of Cr > Cu > Cd, primarily in the kidneys and finally scales. Reactive oxygen species generation increased in all exposure groups up to day 14, with maximum generation at 3.2 mg/L mixture, which later decreased on day 28 in all. Malondialdehydeand and superoxide dismutase levels increased from day 7 to 28 with increased HM concentrations, while total protein showed an inverse trend. Gill histopathology showed major changes such as uplifted and disintegrated primary lamella, and secondary lamella shortening. The kidneys were characterized by glomerular necrosis, Bowman’s capsule expansion, and tubular space dilatation. Proteobacteria and Firmicutes abundance increased up to 59.4% and 99.16% in 0.8 mg/L and 3.2 mg/L treatment groups, respectively. This study provided a better understanding on the physiology and gut microbiota alteration in C. carpio under multiple HM stress.

Authors: Apurva Kakade, El-Sayed Salama, Feng Pengya, Pu Liu, Xiangkai Li
; Full Source: Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) 2020 Aug 1;266(Pt 3):115293. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115293.