Maternal serum leptin, adiponectin, resistin and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 levels in different types of diabetes mellitus

2020-09-30

Objective: Evaluation of serum concentration of leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and MCP-1 in pregnant patients with different types of diabetes mellitus (DM) considering preconception planning and method of DM correction in 11-14th and 30-34th weeks of pregnancy.

Study design: Longitudinal, prospective study included 130 pregnant women divided into the following comparison groups: type 1 DM (T1DM, n = 40), type 2 DM (T2DM, n = 35), GDM (n = 40), and the control group (n = 15). The ELISA method defined the levels of leptin, resistin, adiponectin, and MCP-1 concentration in serum, which was assessed in 11-14th and 30-34th weeks of pregnancy. Statistical analysis was accomplished using SPSS 23.0 and “Prism 8-GraphPad” software.

Results: The leptin level in the 1st trimester was the highest in T2DM insulin group compared to the control due to gestational age, hence in the 3rd trimester in all groups its serum concentrations appeared higher than in healthy patients (p = 0.0001). In the 1st trimester leptin levels directly correlated with women’s BMI, newborns’ weight and macrosomia rate, in the 3rd trimester – with OGTT levels, HbA1c, gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia rates. Resistin levels in the 1st and 3rd trimesters were increased in almost all DM groups compared to the control group (p = 0.0001). The study established direct positive correlation between resistin and HbA1c, birth weight, and preeclampsia. In the 1st trimester, adiponectin demonstrated the lowest levels in T2DM insulin compared to T1DM and the control group (p = 0.0001) while in the 3rd trimester, adiponectin levels declined alongside gestational age in DM patients and all the groups compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Adiponectin negatively correlated with BMI, OGTT levels, and preeclampsia rate. MCP-1 levels in T2DM appeared higher than in T1DM patients and the control group in the 1st trimester, whereas in the 3rd trimester MCP-1 declined, correlating with BMI, preeclampsia and OGTT levels.

Conclusion: High rate of adverse perinatal outcomes in diabetic pregnancy might be developed due to more severe metabolic failures and further disturbances of adipokines expression.

Authors: Roman V Kapustin, Sergey V Chepanov, Vladimir N Babakov, Nadezhda Y Rogovskaya, Ekaterina V Kopteeva, Elena N Alekseenkova, Olga N Arzhanova
; Full Source: European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology 2020 Sep 30;254:284-291. doi: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2020.09.050.