Background: Endocrine-disrupting chemicals may alter glucose homeostasis, especially during pregnancy. Biomonitoring studies suggest ubiquitous human exposure to organophosphate esters (OPEs), chemicals with endocrine-disrupting capabilities. Few studies have examined the association between maternal exposure to OPEs and blood glucose during pregnancy. Methods: With data from 301 pregnant women in the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment (HOME) Study, a prospective pregnancy and birth cohort in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, we examined whether OPE concentrations were associated with changes in blood glucose. We quantified four OPE metabolites in maternal spot urine samples collected at 16- and 26-weeks pregnancy. We extracted results from the glucose challenge test (GCT) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) via medical chart review. Women with GCT ≥ 140 mg/dL or any abnormal values in OGTT (≥ 95 mg/dL fasting glucose, ≥ 180 mg/dL 1-h glucose, ≥ 155 mg/dL 2-h glucose, ≥ 140 mg/dL 3-h glucose) were defined as having elevated glucose levels. We used linear regression and Bayesian Kernel Machine Regression (BKMR) to estimate the associations of individual OPE metabolites and OPE mixtures with blood glucose levels during pregnancy. We used modified Poisson regression to estimate the associations of OPE metabolite concentrations with elevated glucose levels. We further examined effect measure modification by maternal characteristics (age, pre-pregnancy body mass index [BMI], and race/ethnicity).
Results:Diphenyl phosphate (DPHP) had the highest geometric mean concentration of the urinary OPE metabolites (1.83 μg/L at 16 weeks, 1.24 μg/L at 26 weeks). Thirty women (10.0%) had elevated glucose levels. Individual OPE metabolites or their mixtures were not significantly associated with continuous GCT results. We did not observe effect measure modification by maternal age, pre-pregnancy BMI categories, or race/ethnicity. Compared with women in the 1st tertile of average DPHP of 16- and 26 weeks of pregnancy, women in the 3rd tertile tended to have a reduced risk of elevated glucose levels (RR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.16-1.06, p for trend = 0.06).
Conclusion: In this cohort, maternal urinary OPE metabolite concentrations were weakly associated with blood glucose levels during pregnancy.
Authors: Weili Yang, Joseph M Braun, Ann M Vuong, Zana Percy, Yingying Xu, Changchun Xie, Ranjan Deka, Antonia M Calafat, Maria Ospina, Kimberly Yolton, Kim M Cecil, Bruce P Lanphear, Aimin Chen
; Full Source: International journal of hygiene and environmental health 2022 Aug 24;245:114026. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2022.114026.