Organophosphorus insecticides (OPIs) have low persistence and are easily biodegradable in nature. The United States and India are the major countries producing OPIs of about 25% and 17% of the world, respectively. OPIs commonly used for agricultural practices occupy a major share in the global market, which leads to the increasing contamination of OPIs residues in various food chains. To overcome this issue, an enzymatic degradation method has been approved by several environmental toxic, and controlling agencies, including United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Different catalytic enzymes have been isolated and identified from various microbial sources to neutralize the toxic pesticides and/or insecticides. In this review, we have gathered information on OPIs biotransformation and their residual toxicity in the environment. Particularly, it focuses on OPIs degrading enzymes such as chlorpyrifos hydrolase, diisopropylfluorophosphatase, organophosphate acid anhydrolase, organophosphate hydrolases, and phosphotriesterases like lactonasesspecific activity either P-O link group type or P-S link group of pesticides. To summarize, the catalytic degradation of organophosphorus insecticides is not only profitable but also environmentally friendly. Hence, the enzymatic catalyst is an ultimate and super bio-weapon to mitigate or decontaminate various OPIs residues in both terrestrial and aqueous environments.
Authors: Murali Krishna Paidi, Praveen Satapute, Muhammad Salman Haider, Shashikant Shiddappa Udikeri, Ramachandra Yarappa Lakshmikantha, Dai-Viet N Vo, Muthusamy Govarthanan, Sudisha Jogaiah
; Full Source: Environmental research 2021 May 31;111368. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2021.111368.