Copper and nonylphenol are two commonly found chemicals in the aquatic environment, particularly in the distribution area of the amphibian Rhinella arenarum. The current work evaluated the lethal toxicity of equitoxic and non-equitoxic binary mixtures of copper and nonylphenol on embryos and larvae of the South America toad by means of the standardized test, AMPHITOX. Joint toxicity of mixtures was assessed in several proportions of these compounds at different exposure times and was analyzed at different level of mortality effect (LC10, LC50 and LC90). Considering the LC50, the equitoxic mixture was always antagonistic independently of the exposure time and the developmental stage. Joint toxicity showed mainly an antagonistic pattern; nonetheless, some time-dependent additive interactions were observed. Regarding the LC10, synergistic interactions were found in embryos and larvae exposed to two different mixture proportions at several exposure times. This highlights the possible synergism of these chemicals at environmentally relevant concentrations. These results point out the relevance of assessing joint toxicity of environmental pollutants for environmental risk assessment.
Authors:Aronzon CM, Peluso J, Coll CP
; Full Source: Environmental sceince and pollution research internationbal. 2020 Feb 8. doi: 10.1007/s11356-020-07857-7. [Epub ahead of print]