Water and air quality of eight seawater swimming pools using chlorine disinfection was measured during four sampling campaigns, spread over one full-year, and in four thalassotherapy centres located in Southeast of France. Concentrations of trihalomethanes (THMs) in air and in water as well as concentrations of parameters, including nonpurgeable organic carbon (NPOC), free residual chlorine (Clf), pH, Kjeldhal Nitrogen (KN), salinity, conductivity, bromide ions and, water and air temperature, were measured. Water and air samples were collected in triplicates morning – at the opening of the pools -, noon and night – at the closing of the pools -, in summer and winter. Data analysis was performed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and rotated component matrix, from both data quality and other parameters such as TOC, aromaticity (UV254), pH, hygrometry, and free residual chlorine (Clf). This statistical analysis demonstrates a high correlation between TOC, Clf and UV254 and THM levels found in air and water, particularly for the major ones (CHBr3 in water: 300.0?g/L mean, 1029.0?g/L maximum; CHBr3 in air: 266.1?g/m(3) mean, 1600.0?g/m(3) maximum, and CHClBr2 in water: 18.9?g/L mean, 81.0?g/L maximum; CHClBr2 in air: 13.6?g/m(3) mean, 150.0?g/m(3) maximum). These high levels of bromoform (CHBr3) are particularly worrisome in such health institutions, even these levels do not exceed the Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 5mg/m(3) as an 8hour time-weighted average currently fixed by various administrations, such as Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA).
Authors: Boudenne JL, Parinet J, Demelas C, Manasfi T, Coulomb B. ; Full Source: Journal of Environmental Science (China). 2017 Aug; 58:262-270. doi: 10.1016/j.jes.2017.05.022. Epub 2017 May 24.