National and subnational burden of disease attributable to occupational exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (SUVR) in Iran, 2005-2019


Overexposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (SUVR) can cause skin and eye adverse effects for outdoor workers. In this study, the burden of disease induced by occupational exposure to SUVR and its spatiotemporal trend at national and sub-national levels in Iran, 2005-2019 were assessed. The attributable burden of disease was assessed using the following five datasets: (1) distribution of occupational exposure to SUVR, (2) total incidences and deaths of health outcomes of SUVR exposure, (3) population attributable fractions of the health outcomes of SUVR exposure, (4) age-gender distribution of outdoor workers, and (5) disability-adjusted life year (DALY) calculation constants. During 2005-2019, the attributable DALYs increased from 2442 to 2907 and the attributable DALY rate (per 100,000 workers) slightly decreased from 11.94 to 11.91. The share of YLL in the attributable burden of disease was in the range of 43%-46%. Out of nine causes, about 90% of the attributable burden of disease in 2019 was related to cataracts (29.9%), malignant skin melanoma (27.4%), squamous-cell carcinoma (18.6%), and sunburn (17.2%). During the study period, the attributable DALY rate in women increased by 60.95% (from 5.04 to 8.11) and in men decreased by 2.06% (from 13.03 to 12.76). The total attributable DALYs and DALY rate rose by age during 2005-2019. The contributions of population growth, risk-deleted DALY rates, exposure risk, and population age structure in temporal changes of the attributable burden of disease were 19.27%, 9.13%, -1.35%, and -14.8%, respectively. The three highest attributable DALY rates in 2019 were observed in South Khorasan (21.28), Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiari (17.42), and Kordestan (17.26), respectively. The preventive interventions against SUVR overexposure, regular screenings, and early treatments with an emphasis on occupations with continuous sun exposure and provinces with increasing attributable DALY rates should be considered in the occupational health action plan in the country.

Authors: Reza Saeedi, Hossein Miri, Mehrnoosh Abtahi, Sina Dobaradaran, Ali Koolivand, Sahand Jorfi, Azita Mohagheghian, Sama Amirkhani Ardeh
; Full Source: International journal of hygiene and environmental health 2021 Nov 30;240:113897. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2021.113897.