Non-PBDE halogenated flame retardants in Canadian indoor house dust: sampling, analysis, and occurrence

An analytical method was developed for the measurement of 18 novel halogenated flame retardants in house dust. Sample preparation was based on ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction and clean up with solid phase extraction (SPE). Sample extracts were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) operated in electron capture negative ion (ECNI) chemical ionisation mode. Baseline data from 351 fresh (active) dust samples collected under the Canadian House Dust Study (CHDS) revealed that five out of 18 target chemicals were present with detection frequencies higher than 90%. Median (range) concentrations for these five compounds were as follows: 104 (<1.5-13,000) ng/g for 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EHTBB), 8.5 (<1.7-2390) ng/g for 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), 10.2 (<1.7-430) ng/g for hexabromobenzene (HBB), 2.9 (<1.2-1410) ng/g for syn-dechlorane plus (syn-DP) and 5.6 (<1.9-1570) ng/g for anti-dechlorane plus (anti-DP). A comparison of two sampling methods in a subset of 40 homes showed significant positive correlations between samples of "active" dust and samples taken directly from the household vacuum cleaner for all target compounds having median values above their corresponding method detection limits (MDLs). In addition, the method was also applied to the analysis of the targeted compounds in National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standard reference material (SRM 2585, organic contaminants in house dust). The authors concluded that the results from the current study could contribute to the potential certification of target chemicals in SRM 2585. Authors: Fan X, Kubwabo C, Rasmussen PE, Wu F. ;Full Source: Environmental Science & Pollution Research International. 2016 Jan 16. [Epub ahead of print] ;