Occurrence, fate and risk assessment of BPA and its substituents in wastewater treatment plant: A review


Several bisphenol analogues (BPs) are gradually replacing bisphenol A (BPA) in many fields, following strict restrictions on the production and use of BPA. The presence of micropollutants in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) may pose risks to the aquatic ecosystem and human health. In this review, the authors outlined the occurrence and fate of BPs in WWTPs, and estimated their potential risks to the aquatic ecosystem. BPA is still the most predominant bisphenol analogue in WWTPs with high detection rate and concentration, followed by bisphenol S (BPS) and F (BPF). Biodegradation and adsorption are the main removal pathways for removal of BPs in WWTPs. The secondary (activated sludge process, biological aerated filter, and membrane bioreactor) and advanced (membrane technique, ultraviolet disinfection, adsorption process, and ozonation) treatment processes show high removal efficiency for BPs, which are influenced by many factors such as sludge retention time and redox conditions. BPs other than BPA (assessed in this review) in effluent of WWTPs have low risks to Daphnia magna and early life stages on medaka, while BPA shows a medium or high risk under certain conditions. Knowledge gaps have been identified and future line of research on this class of chemicals in WWTPs is recommended. More data are needed to illustrate the occurrence and fate of BPs in WWTPs. Environmental risks of BPs other than BPA initiating from wastewater discharge to aquatic organisms remain largely unknown.

Authors: Hu Y, Zhu Q, Yan X, Liao C, Jiang G.
; Full Source: Environmental Research. 2019 Nov; 178:108732. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2019.108732. Epub 2019 Sep 7.