Occurrence of Bisphenol A Diglycidyl Ethers (BADGEs) and Novolac Glycidyl Ethers (NOGEs) in Archived Biosolids from the U.S. EPA’s Targeted National Sewage Sludge Survey

Epoxy resins incorporating bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) and novolac glycidyl ether (NOGE) are used in a wide range of applications, including adhesives, structural and electrical laminates. However, little is known about the occurrence of BADGE, NOGE, and their derivatives in the environment. The results demonstrated that BADGE·2 H2O was the most frequently detected (DR = 99%) and the most abundant compound found (median: 93.6 ng/g dry weight [dw]) in this family. The highest total concentrations of target chemicals, ranging from 83.6 to 2490 ng/g dw, were found in biosolids collected from the northeastern United States. The sum of geometric mean (GM) concentration of BADGE, NOGE, and their derivatives in biosolids increased with the treatment capacity of WWTPs. The authors concluded that based on the measured concentrations in biosolids and predicted mass in wastewater, it was estimated that approximately 3.5% of the total production of BADGEs was emitted through WWTP discharges.

Authors: Xue J, Venkatesan AK, Wu Q, Halden RU, Kannan K. ;Full Source: Environmental Science & Technology. 2015 May 12. [Epub ahead of print] ;