Parabens, triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) are emerging endocrine disrupting chemicals, which are commonly used in personal care products and household applications in daily life. Due to their adverse health effects, human exposure to these chemicals has been a public concern. Despite evidence showing different exposure pathways of these chemicals, few studies have examined contribution of certain exposure to total human exposure. In this study, we measured six parabens, TCS and TCC in 129 indoor dust samples and these chemicals plus four paraben metabolites in 203 urine samples from two different cities in China (Suizhou, a typical small city in central China and Beijing, the capital of China). The median concentrations of ∑6Parabens (1050 ng/g) and ∑TCS + TCC (565 ng/g) in dusts from Beijing were 1.9-3.3 times higher than those from Suizhou (∑6Parabens: 314, ∑TCS + TCC: 294 ng/g). The ∑6Parabens in urines from Suizhou and Beijing were in the range of 0.208-645 and 0.455-2300 μg/g Creatinine (Cr), respectively. The ∑TCS + TCC concentrations in urine were 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than those found for ∑6Parabens. Comparatively, women had relatively higher body burden of parabens than men, which was more noticeable when considering the use of skin care products. In this regard, relatively higher levels of parabens were also found in women in couples. Positive correlations were found between concentrations of methyl-paraben (MeP) and ethyl-paraben (PrP) in paired dust and urine samples (p < 0.05). Human exposure to such chemicals was evaluated. Based on the measured concentrations in paired human urine and indoor dust samples, our results provided direct evidence that the contribution of indoor dust ingestion to the total exposure was minor. These findings are essential for clarifying the sources and potential exposure routes of these chemicals in humans.
Authors: Yun Wang, Guoliang Li, Qingqing Zhu, Chunyang Liao
; Full Source: The Science of the total environment 2021 May 3;786:147485. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147485.