Recent evidence suggests that exposure to organic ultraviolet filters (UV filters) is associated with dysregulated neuroendocrine-immune homeostasis. Marine species are likely to be among the most vulnerable to UV filters due to widespread diffusion of these chemicals in the aquatic environment. In the present study, the effects of UV filter bioaccumulation on toll-like-receptors (TLRs) and related signaling pathways were investigated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of juvenile loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta). We found that the expression of both TLR1 and TLR2 was significantly increased in UV-filter exposed turtles compared to control animals. Similarly, the signaling pathway downstream of activated TLRs (i.e., Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (RAC1), Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), serine/threonine-protein kinase (AKT3), and nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B)) was significantly up-regulated, leading to an enhanced transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, we demonstrated that high levels of plasma UV filters increased lipid peroxidation in sea turtles’ PBMCs. Our results indicated that UV filters affected the inflammatory responses of PBMCs via modulation of the TLR/NF-?B signaling pathway and provided a new insight into the link between exposure to sunscreen agents and sea turtle health.
Authors: Paolo Cocci, Gilberto Mosconi, Francesco Alessandro Palermo
; Full Source: Animals : an open access journal from MDPI 2022 Feb 27;12(5):594. doi: 10.3390/ani12050594.