Percutaneous absorption is highly variable between chemicals but also within chemicals depending on exposure conditions and experimental set up. In this study, the authors tested a larger number of organic solvents with the same experimental set up, using skin from new-born piglets and static diffusion cells. Thirty-six common organic solvents were studied neat (and 31 of them also in water dilution): acetone, acetonitrile, n-butanol 2-butanone 2-butoxyethanol, 1-butoxy-2-propanol, n-butyl acetate, butyl acrylate, cyclohexane, cyclohexanone, 1,2-dichloroethane, dichloromethane, ethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol, ethyl acetate, ethyl acrylate, ethylbenzene, furfuryl alcohol, n-hexane, 2-hexanone, 2-isopropoxyethanol, methanol, 1-methoxy-2-propanol, methyl acrylate, 3-methyl-1-butanol, methyl tertiary butyl ether, 4-metyl-2-pentanol, methyl methacrylate, 2-propanol, 2-propen-1-ol, 2-propoxyethanol, 1-propoxy-2-propanol, styrene, trichloromethane, toluene and m-xylene. In addition, a mixture of 2-methylbutyl acetate and n-pentyl acetate was tested. For most of the solvents, little or no percutaneous absorption data have been published. Lag times, steady-state fluxes and apparent permeability coefficients were obtained from the time courses of solvent appearance in the receptor medium, as measured by gas chromatography. The use of the same methodology and kind of skin resulted in small variability within
experiments, underlining the need for consistent methodology for useful results for developing predictive models. Furthermore, a comparison of the neat and diluted data shows that water dilution affects all these variables and that the direction and magnitude of the effects vary between chemicals. This comparison strongly supports that prediction of percutaneous absorption of neat and water diluted chemicals requires different models.
Authors: Schenk L, Rauma M, Fransson MN, Johanson G. ; Full Source: PLoS One. 2018 Oct 31; 13(10): e0205458. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0205458. eCollection 2018.