Pesticide contamination in agro-ecosystems: toxicity, impacts, and bio-based management strategies


Continuous rise in application of pesticides in the agro-ecosystems in order to ensure food supply to the ever-growing population is of greater concern to the human health and the environment. Once entered into the agro-ecosystem, the fate and transport of pesticides is determined largely by the nature of pesticides and the soil attributes, in addition to the soil-inhabiting microbes, fauna, and flora. Changes in the soil microbiological actions, soil properties, and enzymatic activities resulting from pesticide applications are the important factors substantially affecting the soil productivity. Disturbances in the microbial community composition may lead to the considerable perturbations in cycling of major nutrients, metals, and subsequent uptake by plants. Indiscriminate applications are linked with the accumulation of pesticides in plant-based foods, feeds, and animal products. Furthermore, rapid increase in the application of pesticides having long half-life has also been reported to contaminate the nearby aquatic environments and accumulation in the plants, animals, and microbes surviving there. To circumvent the negative consequences of pesticide application, multitude of techniques falling in physical, chemical, and biological categories are presented by different investigators. In the present study, important findings pertaining to the pesticide contamination in cultivated agricultural soils; toxicity on soil microbes, plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates; effects on soil characteristics; and alleviation of toxicity by bio-based management approaches have been thoroughly reviewed. With the help of bibliometric analysis, thematic evolution and research trends on the bioremediation of pesticides in the agro-ecosystems have also been highlighted.

Authors: Umesh Pravin Dhuldhaj, Rishikesh Singh, Vipin Kumar Singh
; Full Source: Environmental science and pollution research international 2022 Dec 2. doi: 10.1007/s11356-022-24381-y.