The quality of indoor environment has received considerable attention owing to the declining outdoor human activities and the associated public health issues. The prolonged exposure of children in childcare facilities or the occupational exposure of adults to indoor environmental triggers can be a culprit of the pathophysiology of several commonly observed idiopathic syndromes. In this study, concentrations of potentially toxic plasticisers (phthalates as well as non-phthalates) were investigated in 28 dust samples collected from three different indoor environments across the USA. The mean concentrations of non-phthalate plasticisers [acetyl tri-n-butyl citrate (ATBC), di-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA), and di-isobutyl adipate (DIBA)] were found at 0.51-880 ?g/g for the first time in indoor dust samples from childcare facilities, homes, and salons across the USA. The observed concentrations of these replacement non-phthalate plasticizer were as high as di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, the most frequently detected phthalate plasticiser at highest concentration worldwide, in most of indoor dust samples. The estimated daily intakes of total phthalates (n = 7) by children and toddlers through indoor dust in childcare facilities were 1.6 times higher than the non-phthalate plasticisers (n = 3), whereas estimated daily intake of total non-phthalates for all age groups at homes were 1.9 times higher than the phthalate plasticisers. This study reveals, for the first time, a more elevated (?3 folds) occupational intake of phthalate and non-phthalate plasticisers through the indoor dust at salons (214 and 285 ng/kg-bw/day, respectively) than at homes in the USA.
Authors: Subedi B, Sullivan KD, Dhungana B. ; Full Source: Environmental Pollution. 2017 Jul 17; 230:701-708. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2017.07.028. [Epub ahead of print]