Phytotoxicity of Bisphenol A to Allium cepa Root Cells Is Mediated through Growth Hormone Gibberellic Acid and Reactive Oxygen Species


The aim of this study was to test the phytotoxicity and mode of action of bisphenol A (BPA) on Allium cepa using a multibiomarker approach. A. cepa roots were exposed to BPA in concentration range 0-50 mg L-1 for 3 days. BPA even in the lowest applied concentration (1 mg L-1) reduced root length, root fresh weight, and mitotic index. Additionally, the lowest BPA concentration (1 mg L-1) decreased the level of gibberellic acid (GA3) in root cells. BPA at concentration 5 mg L-1 increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that was followed by increase in oxidative damage to cells’ lipids and proteins and activity of enzyme superoxide dismutase. BPA in higher concentrations (25 and 50 mg L-1) induced genome damage detected as an increase in micronucleus (MNs) and nuclear buds (NBUDs). BPA at >25 mg L-1 induced synthesis of phytochemicals. Results of this study using multibiomarker approach indicate that BPA is phytotoxic to A. cepa roots and has shown genotoxic potential to plants, thus its presence in the environment should be monitored.

Authors: Valerija Vujčić Bok, Marko Gerić, Goran Gajski, Sanja Gagić, Ana-Marija Domijan
; Full Source: Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) 2023 Feb 22;28(5):2046. doi: 10.3390/molecules28052046.