Global warming and deforestation have resulted in the relocation of many living creatures including insects during the recent years. This has affected the population balance of disease vectors including mosquitoes resulting in outbreaks. Traditionally, mankind has been using plants as means of protection from the mosquitoes, which are considered to be environment friendly unlike the synthetic chemicals that cause major risk to human health and the ecosystem. In the present study, the researchers explored mainly, essential oils and traditional plants using different testing methodologies to find out repellent molecules effective against mosquitoes. Among the promising plant species, Eucalyptus spp., Ocimum spp. and Cymbopogon spp. are the most cited. Data of repellency produced from the bioassay systems is difficult to quantify because of different parameters, testing system and standards of material used against mosquitoes. Mainly, the human forearm based bioassays have been used with different sizes of treatment area in the laboratory and the results have not been tested in the field conditions for residual activity. In addition, effectiveness of essential oils and their protection time can be increased by using vanillin as synergist and formulation techniques like microencapsulation and nanoemulsion. There is a need to develop an alternate in vitro bioassay system that can address the problems of uniformity of the results.
Authors: Rehman JU, Ali A, Khan IA. ;Full Source: Fitoterapia. 2014 Jun;95:65-74. doi: 10.1016/j.fitote.2014.03.002. Epub 2014 Mar 13. ;