Positive association between dietary exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers and breast cancer risk in the French E3N cohort: The role of vegetable oil consumption


Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals, like Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), is suspected of playing a role in the occurrence of breast cancer. Moreover, there is growing evidence that food chemical contaminants, especially lipophilic ones such as PBDEs, could interact with different components of the diet. The objective of the present study was to assess the association between dietary intake of PBDEs and breast cancer risk in the French E3N cohort study, and to investigate the potential modification of this association by vegetable oil consumption. The study included 67879 women. Intakes of eight PBDEs were estimated using food consumption data from a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and food contamination levels measured by the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES). Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate Hazard Ratios (HR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) for the association between total PBDEs dietary intake and breast cancer risk. Interaction measures for vegetable oil consumption were estimated on both additive and multiplicative scales. The women were followed for a maximum of 21.4 years, and 5 686 developed an incident breast cancer. A positive linear trend was highlighted between dietary intake of PBDEs in quintile groups and breast cancer risk, borderline with statistical significance (p-trend = 0.06, HRQ5vsQ1 and 95% CI: 1.09 [0.99;1.20]). Interaction measures for vegetable oil consumption were significant in both additive and multiplicative scales. Higher effect sizes of the association were highlighted in high consumers of vegetable oil, i.e. ≥4.6 g/day (HRQ5vsQ1 and 95% CI: 1.23 [1.08; 1.40]), and almost no effect were found in low consumers (HRQ5vsQ1 and 95% CI: 0.97 [0.86; 1.10]). Highlighting such interactions between nutrients and chemicals is crucial to develop efficient dietary recommendations to limit the negative health effects associated with exposure to food chemical contaminants.

Authors: Pauline Frenoy, Chloé Marques, Thibault Fiolet, German Cano-Sancho, Gianluca Severi, Francesca Romana Mancini
; Full Source: Environment international 2022 Jul 30;167:107444. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2022.107444.