Quantifying Emission Factors and Setting Conditions of Use According to ECHA Chapter R.14 for a Spray Process Designed for Nanocoatings-A Case Study
Spray coatings’ emissions impact to the environmental and occupational exposure were studied in a pilot-plant. Concentrations were measured inside the spray chamber and at the work room in Near-Field (NF) and Far-Field (FF) and mass flows were analyzed using a mechanistic model. The coating was performed in a ventilated chamber by spraying titanium dioxide doped with nitrogen (TiO2N) and silver capped by hydroxyethylcellulose (Ag-HEC) nanoparticles (NPs). Process emission rates to workplace, air, and outdoor air were characterized according to process parameters, which were used to assess emission factors. Full-scale production exposure potential was estimated under reasonable worst-case (RWC) conditions. The measured TiO2-N and Ag-HEC concentrations were 40.9 TiO2-μg/m3 and 0.4 Ag-μg/m3 at NF (total fraction). Under simulated RWC conditions with precautionary emission rate estimates, the worker’s 95th percentile 8-h exposure was ≤171 TiO2 and ≤1.9 Ag-μg/m3 (total fraction). Environmental emissions via local ventilation (LEV) exhaust were ca. 35 and 140 mg-NP/g-NP, for TiO2-N and Ag-HEC, respectively. Under current situation, the exposure was adequately controlled. However, under full scale production with continuous process workers exposure should be evaluated with personal sampling if recommended occupational exposure levels for nanosized TiO2 and Ag are followed for risk management.
Authors: Antti Joonas Koivisto, Benedetta Del Secco, Sara Trabucco, Alessia Nicosia, Fabrizio Ravegnani, Marko Altin, Joan Cabellos, Irini Furxhi, Magda Blosi, Anna Costa, Jesús Lopez de Ipiña, Franco Belosi
; Full Source: Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland) 2022 Feb 10;12(4):596. doi: 10.3390/nano12040596.