Venlafaxine (VEN), as one of the popular anti-depressants, is widely utilized for the treatment of major depressive disorder, panic disorder, as well as anxiety. This drug influences the chemicals in the brain, which may result in imbalance in depressed individuals. However, venlafaxine and its metabolites are contaminants in water. They have exerted an adverse influence on living organisms through their migration and transformation in various forms of adsorption, photolysis, hydrolysis, and biodegradation followed by the formation of various active compounds in the environment. Hence, it is crucial to determine VEN with low concentrations in high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility. Some analytical techniques have been practically designed to quantify VEN. However, electroanalytical procedures have been of interest due to the superior advantages in comparison to conventional techniques, because such methods feature rapidity, simplicity, sensitivity, and affordability. Therefore, this mini-review aims to present the electrochemical determination of VEN with diverse electrodes, such as carbon paste electrodes, glassy carbon electrodes, mercury-based electrodes, screen-printed electrodes, pencil graphite electrodes, and ion-selective electrodes.
Authors: Somayeh Tajik, Hadi Beitollahi, Zahra Dourandish, Kaiqiang Zhang, Quyet Van Le, Thang Phan Nguyen, Soo Young Kim, Mohammadreza Shokouhimehr
; Full Source: Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) 2020 Jun 30;20(13):E3675. doi: 10.3390/s20133675.