This review addresses recent progress made in the use of nanofibres for analyte detection and sample preparation within analysis devices. The unique characteristics of nanofibres make them ideal for incorporation within sensors designed to allow for sensitive detection of clinical, environmental, and food safety analytes. In particular, the extremely large surface area provided by nanofibre mats and arrays drastically increases the availability of immobilisation sites within biosensors. Additional, nanofibres can be made from a variety of biocompatible materials and can be functionalised through the incorporation of nanoscale materials within spinning dopes or polymerisation solutions. Finally, methods of nanofibre formation are largely well understood, allowing for controlled synthesis of nanofibre mats with specific sizes, shapes, pore sizes, and tensile strengths. In this paper, the authors present a survey of the different materials that are currently being used to produce nanofibres for use within sensing devices. In addition, the authors compared the limits of detection and linear ranges of nanofibre-based sensors and conventional sensors to detect if detection is improved by the inclusion of nanoscale materials.