Remediation and characterization of emerging and environmental pollutants from residential wastewater using a nature-based system
The nature-based systems (NBS) are nature inspired, unflagging, efficient, and budget friendly ideas that evolved as ideal technologies for wastewater treatment. The present study deals with the purification of residential wastewater through the NBS, covering three seasons. The NBS embedded with the Canna lily effectively eliminated organic matter, nutrients, and heavy metals. Nearly 57.2-75.2% COD, 69.9-83.2% BOD, 73.4-90.6% TSS, 51.1-71.6% PO43–P, 66.3-84.8% NH4+-N, 52-61.5% NO3–N, and 68-70.6% NO2–N removal were achieved. Heavy metals like Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, and Pb were removed, with a 98.25% reduction in the total bacterial count. The pollutant removal’s kinetics was calculated using first-order kinetics. The mass removal rate of BOD was high in monsoon (22.3 g/m2/d), and COD was high in summer (36.4 g/m2/d). Organic compound removal (65.2%), including emerging pollutants, was observed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) analysis of water and Canna samples. Wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (WDXRF) studied the elements and oxides retention by media and accumulation by the plant. The CHN content of the Canna and its morphological study was checked using the carbon CHNS analyzer and scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX), respectively. The performance of the NBS was validated using variance, correlation, and principal component analysis (PCA). This study shows the NBS effects on the remediation of environmental and emerging contaminants from residential wastewater and further use it for horticultural activities, thereby achieving sustainable development goals.
Authors: Monali Muduli, Meena Choudhary, Sanak Ray
; Full Source: Environmental science and pollution research international 2023 Jan 28. doi: 10.1007/s11356-023-25553-0.