Sample preparation and instrumental methods for illicit drugs in environmental and biological samples: A review


Detection of illicit drugs in the environmental samples has been challenged as the consumption increases globally. Current review examines the recent developments and applications of sample preparation techniques for illicit drugs in solid, liquid, and gas samples. For solid samples, traditional sample preparation methods such as liquid-phase extraction, solid-phase extraction, and the ones with external energy including microwave-assisted, ultrasonic-assisted, and pressurized liquid extraction were commonly used. The sample preparation methods mainly applied for liquid samples were microextraction techniques including solid-phase microextraction, microextraction by packed sorbent, dispersive solid-phase extraction, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, hollow fiber-based liquid-phase microextraction, and so on. Capillary microextraction of volatiles and airborne particulate sampling were primarily utilized to extract illicit drugs from gas samples. Besides, the paper introduced recently developed instrumental techniques applied to detect illicit drugs. Liquid chromatograph mass spectrometry and gas chromatograph mass spectrometry were the most widely used methods for illicit drugs samples. In addition, the development of ambient mass spectrometry techniques, such as desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and paper spray mass spectrometry, created potential for rapid in-situ analysis.

Authors: Xinlv Chen, Xinyan Wu, Tiangang Luan, Ruifen Jiang, Gangfeng Ouyang
; Full Source: Journal of chromatography. A 2021 Feb 2;1640:461961. doi: 10.1016/j.chroma.2021.461961.