A homeostasis of the glucocorticoid and androgen endocrine system is essential to human health. Their disturbance can lead to various diseases, for example cardiovascular, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, infertility, cancer. Fifteen widely used industrial chemicals that disrupt endocrine activity were selected for evaluation of potential (anti)glucocorticoid and (anti)androgenic activities. The human breast carcinoma MDA-kb2 cell line was utilised for reporter gene assays, since it expresses both the androgen and the glucocorticoid-responsive reporter. Two new antiandrogens, 4,4′-sulfonylbis(2-methylphenol) (dBPS) and 4,4′-thiodiphenol (THIO), and two new antiglucocorticoids, bisphenol Z and its analogue bis[4-(2-hydroxyethoxy)phenyl] sulfone (BHEPS) were identified. Moreover, four new glucocorticoid agonists (methyl paraben, ethyl paraben, propyl paraben and bisphenol F) were found. To elucidate the structure-activity relationship of bisphenols, the authors performed molecular docking experiments with androgen and glucocorticoid receptor. These docking experiments had shown that bulky structures such as BHEPS and bisphenol Z act as antiglucocorticoid, because they are positioned toward helix H12 in the antagonist conformation and could therefore be responsible for H12 conformational change and the switch between agonistic and antagonistic conformation of receptor. On the other hand smaller structures cannot interact with H12. the authors concluded that the results of in vitro screening of fifteen industrial chemicals as modulators of the glucocorticoid and androgen receptor activities demand additional in vivo testing of these chemicals for formulating any relevant hazard identification to human health.
Authors: Kolek K, Gobec M, Mlinari? Ra?an I, Sollner Dolenc M. ;Full Source: Toxicology In Vitro. 2014 Sep 2;29(1):8-15. doi: 10.1016/j.tiv.2014.08.009. [Epub ahead of print] ;