Serum oestradiol concentration, oestradiol-to-progesterone ratio and sputum IL-5 and IL-8 concentrations are increased in luteal phase of the menstrual cycle in perimenstrual asthma patients

The results of the research on perimenstrual asthma (PMA) pathophysiology are inconsistent, and the role of sex hormones remains inconclusive. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of serum sex steroid (and other) hormones concentrations on lower airway inflammation of PMA patients. Thirty-three women of childbearing age diagnosed as: PMA (n = 13), non-PMA asthmatics (n = 10), and healthy controls (n = 10) were prospectively followed for 12 weeks over 2 consecutive menstrual cycles. On the 10(th) and 26(th) day of each cycle serum 17?-oestradiol, progesterone, testosterone, androstendion, dehydroepiandrosteron, cortisol, thyroid-stimulating hormone and prolactin were measured, and sputum was induced. Sputum inflammatory cell count and IL-5, -6, -8, -10 concentrations were determined. When compared to non-PMA asthmatics, the luteal phase of the cycle in PMA subjects was associated with increased serum oestradiol concentration, oestradiol-to-progesterone ratio (p < 0.001, p = 0.001, respectively) and sputum IL-5 and IL-8 concentrations (p = 0.045, p = 0.039, respectively). Decreased serum testosterone levels (p < 0.05) and a trend to increased serum prolactin levels in both phases of the menstrual cycle in PMA subjects were observed. Sputum analysis in PMA patients revealed increased total inflammatory cell count in both phases of the menstrual cycle (p < 0.05), when compared to non-PMA asthmatics. The authors concluded that the luteal phase of the cycle in PMA patients is associated with increased serum oestradiol levels with concurrent higher sputum concentration of IL-5 and IL-8. Serum testosterone levels are decreased, and total number of sputum inflammatory cells is increased in PMA patients in both phases of the menstrual cycle.

Authors: Semik-Orzech A, Skoczy?ski S, Pierzcha?a W. ; Full Source: European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2017 Jul; 49(4):161-170.