UV light catalyzes the ozone formation from air pollutants, like nitrogen oxides. Since ozone reacts with cutaneous sebum lipids to peroxides and, thus, promotes inflammation, tumorigenesis, and aging, even broad-spectrum sunscreens cannot properly protect skin. Meanwhile, xanthophylls, like fucoxanthin, proved their antioxidant and cytoprotective functions, but the safety of their topical application in human cell-based models remains unknown. Aiming for a more detailed insight into the cutaneous fucoxanthin toxicity, we assessed the tissue viability according to OECD test guideline no. 439 as well as changes in inflammation (IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8), homeostasis (EGFR, HSPB1) and metabolism (NAT1). First, we proved the suitability of our 24-well-based reconstructed human skin for irritation testing. Next, we dissolved 0.5% fucoxanthin either in alkyl benzoate or in ethanol and applied both solutions onto the tissue surface. None of the solutions decreased RHS viability below 50%. In contrast, fucoxanthin ameliorated the detrimental effects of ethanol and reduced the gene expression of pro-inflammatory interleukins 6 and 8, while increasing NAT1 gene expression. In conclusion, we developed an organ-on-a-chip compatible RHS, being suitable for skin irritation testing beyond tissue viability assessment. Fucoxanthin proved to be non-irritant in RHS and already showed first skin protective effects following topical application.
Authors: Spagolla Napoleão Tavares R, Maria-Engler SS, Colepicolo P, Debonsi HM, Schäfer-Korting M, Marx U, Gaspar LR, Zoschke C
; Full Source: Pharmaceutics. 2020 Feb 5;12(2). pii: E136. doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics12020136.