Spatiotemporal variations of retinoic acids and their metabolites in the marine environment of Hong Kong


Excessive intake of retinoic acids (RAs) and the oxidative metabolites, 4-oxo-RAs, can lead to abnormal morphological development in animals. This study investigated spatiotemporal variations of concentrations and compositions of these compounds in Hong Kong’s seawater and during algal blooms. Total concentrations of the studied compounds in seawater were up to 0.790 and 0.427 ng/L in dry and wet seasons, respectively, though no significant seasonal variation was observed. Spatially, the Deep Bay Water Control Zone was the most enriched area with the studied compounds owing to its semi-enclosed nature and influence from the Pearl River discharge. During algal blooms, the studied compounds were detected up to 4.74 ng/L. Based on calculated risk quotients, the ecological risk of the studied compounds to Hong Kong’s marine ecosystems was low. Nevertheless, the occurrence and distribution of these chemicals in the marine environment should be closely monitored where algal blooms frequently occur.

Authors: Katie Wan Yee Yeung, Kevin King Yan Ho, Guang-Jie Zhou, Yuefei Ruan, Paul Kwan Sing Lam, Kenneth Mei Yee Leung
; Full Source: Marine pollution bulletin 2022 Jun 29;181:113878. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2022.113878.