Structure-related endocrine-disrupting potential of environmental transformation products of benzophenone-type UV filters: A review


Benzophenone-type UV filters (BPs) represent a very diverse group of chemicals that are used across a range of industrial sectors around the world. They are found within different environmental compartments (e.g. surface water, groundwater, wastewater, sediments and biota) at concentrations ranging from ng/L to mg/L. Some are known as endocrine disruptors and are currently within the scope of international regulations. A structural alert for high potential of endocrine disrupting activity was assigned to 11 BP derivatives. Due to the widespread use, distribution and disruptive effects of some BPs, knowledge of their elimination pathways is required. This review demonstrates that biodegradation and photolytic decomposition are the major elimination processes for BP-type UV filters in the environment. Under aerobic conditions, transformation pathways have only been reported for BP, BP-3 and BP-4, which are also the most common derivatives. Primary biodegradation mainly results in the formation of hydroxylated BPs, which exhibit a structure-related increase in endocrine activity when compared to their parent substances. By combining 76 literature-based transformation products (TPs) with in silico results relating to their receptor activity, it is demonstrated that 32 TPs may retain activity and that further knowledge of the degradation of BPs in the environment is needed.

Authors: Lale Carstensen, Stephan Beil, Hilmar Börnick, Stefan Stolte
; Full Source: Journal of hazardous materials 2022 May 15;430:128495. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2022.128495.