Summary of 17 chemicals evaluated by OECD TG229 using Japanese Medaka, Oryzias latipes in EXTEND 2016


In June 2016, the Ministry of the Environment of Japan announced a program “EXTEND2016” on the implementation of testing and assessment for endocrine active chemicals, consisting of a two-tiered strategy. The aim of the Tier 1 screening and the Tier 2 testing is to identify the impacts on the endocrine system and to characterize the adverse effects to aquatic animals by endocrine disrupting chemicals detected in the aquatic environment in Japan. For the consistent assessment of the effects on reproduction associated with estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, androgenic, and/or anti-androgenic activities of chemicals throughout Tier 1 screening to Tier 2 testing, a unified test species, Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes), has been used. For Tier 1 screening, the in vivo Fish Short-Term Reproduction Assay (OECD test guideline No. 229) was conducted for 17 chemicals that were nominated based on the results of environmental monitoring, existing knowledge obtained from a literature survey, and positive results in reporter gene assays using the estrogen receptor of Japanese medaka. In the 17 assays using Japanese medaka, adverse effects on reproduction (i.e., reduction in fecundity and/or fertility) were suggested for 10 chemicals, and a significant increase of hepatic vitellogenin in males, indicating estrogenic (estrogen receptor agonistic) potency, was found for eight chemicals at the concentrations in which no overt toxicity was observed. Based on these results, and the frequency and the concentrations detected in the Japanese environment, estrone, 4-nonylphenol (branched isomers), 4-tert-octylphenol, triphenyl phosphate, and bisphenol A were considered as high priority candidate substances for the Tier 2 testing.

Authors: Yukio Kawashima, Yuta Onishi, Norihisa Tatarazako, Hirotaka Yamamoto, Masaaki Koshio, Tomohiro Oka, Yoshifumi Horie, Haruna Watanabe, Takashi Nakamoto, Jun Yamamoto, Hidenori Ishikawa, Tomomi Sato, Kunihiko Yamazaki, Taisen Iguchi
; Full Source: Journal of applied toxicology : JAT 2021 Nov 2. doi: 10.1002/jat.4255.