Numerous chemical substances are used for daily life activities have an effect on the endocrine system and are frequently classed as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). The present study investigated the fact and distribution of EDCs type (estrogen, plasticizer, and preservative). In particular, EDCs such as estriol, 1,2,4 triazole, 17α-ethinylestradiol, methyl paraben, estrone, 3,4,4 trichlorocarbanilide, 17β-estradiol, and bisphenol A (BPA) were selected as the target EDCs for the detection in the Bengawan Solo and Brantas rivers located in Indonesia. Among the targeted EDCs, BPA is found to be highest in the water samples of Bengawan Solo (1070 ng/L and mean at 219 ng/L) and Brantas (556 ng/L and mean at 222 ng/L) rivers. The EDCs concentration is higher in both rivers during the dry season compared to the wet season due to the dilution effect caused by heavy rainfall. The entry of municipal wastewater is the primary sources of EDCs contamination in both rivers. Finally, this study suggests that the contamination level of EDCs in river water could pose an environmental threat, particularly during dry seasons.
Authors: Aris Ismanto, Tony Hadibarata, Risky Ayu Kristanti, Lilik Maslukah, Novia Safinatunnajah, Palanivel Sathishkumar
; Full Source: Chemosphere 2022 Mar 1;134151. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.134151.