Air pollution in Kazakhstan is a significant environmental problem. Air pollution levels in cities and industrial centres is rather high. Highest air pollution levels were registered at Ridder, Ust-Kamenogorsk, Almaty, Zyryanovsk, Aktau, Atyrau, Shymkent, Taraz, Petropavlovsk, and Temirtau. The Rudnyi Altay, Pavlodar Oblast, and oil and gas complex enterprises in West Kazakhstan, Atyrau, and Mangistau Oblasts negatively affect air quality. About one third of industrial enterprises have no standard size sanitary protective zones. A considerable portion of the industrial centre population live in a direct impact zone with harmful industrial factor emissions of noise, vibration, electrical magnetic fields, and other physical polluting substances and factors to air. Under the air pollution impact conditions, there is high morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, nervous system and sensory organ disturbances, and gastrointestinal and circulatory diseases. Poor air quality is cited as a factor in these conditions. A correlation between malignant tumour level of disease and stationary source pollutant emissions in Rudnyi Altay industrial area is discussed. A quantitative relationship between malignant diseases and changes in emission quantity was revealed by regression analysis and modelling. Regression analysis and simulations confirmed a direct, significant correlation between malignant tumour incidence and stationary source emissions (correlation coefficient. R ) 0.6). Analysis of vital statistics showed the increased disease rate. The authors concluded that the findings demonstrate that the population health status is negatively affected by unfavourable environmental situation, general emissions, and technogenic hotspots. Air pollution-related health effects can be reduced through policies which curb pollutant emissions. Among measures which can be done to achieve these reductions is using industrial technology and programs to increase public awareness; however, Kazakhstani society is more concerned about social problems and the government does not want to disturb people because environmental problems are far from a positive decision.
Authors: Salnikov, Vitaliy G.; Karatayev, Marat A. ;Full Source: American Journal of Environmental Sciences 2011, 7(3), 286-294 (Eng) ;