The rail transport is the one of the leading sectors of the national economy. More than 50% of the employees of the enterprises of the railway complex work under the unfavourable impact of hazardous and dangerous substances and occupational factors. In the literature issues of working conditions and health of employees of railway car repairing plant are hardly highlighted. The aim of the study is the evaluation of the morbidity rate shaped under the influence of harmful occupational factors for the elaboration of preventive measures. In the work there were used generally accepted methods of hygienic studies, analysis of morbidity rate with temporary disability (TD), according to records of periodic medical examinations, occupational prevalence. The railway car-repairing plant was established to be characterised by the complex of harmful factors of the working environment and labour process: noise, local vibration, industrial aerosols of complex composition, chemicals, low light, hardness of the labour process. The levels of incidence with temporal disability in the studied groups, depending on the work seniority in the harmful labour conditions, significantly decrease with the experience from 5 to 9 years and increase with the experience more than 10 years. Executed in-depth analysis as of the both morbidity rate and TD, as well results of periodic medical examinations of workers of main shops shows that overall indices of the morbidity rate and TD are significantly higher than in the comparison group; levels of the morbidity rate and TD in the observed groups significantly decline depending on the length of service in hazardous working conditions with a length of the experience of from 5 to 9 years and increase with the increase in the length of experience of 10 years or more. In the structure of morbidity and TD leading positions are occupied by diseases of the respiratory system, musculoskeletal system and connective tissue, circulatory system and digestive system, diseases of the eye and its appendages. The health damage risk coefficients in the studied groups of workers and the average losses of working time due to the morbidity with TD per 1 employee in all shops are higher than those in the comparison group. The level of the occupational morbidity rate is very low. Harmful working conditions contribute to the development of general and occupationally related diseases.
Authors: Sudeikina NA, Kurenkova GV, Lemeshevskaya EP. ; Full Source: Gigiena i sanitariia. 2016;95(12):1150-4.