The protective effect of natural or chemical compounds against arsenic-induced neurotoxicity: Cellular and molecular mechanisms
Arsenic is a notorious metalloid that exists in the earth’s crust and is considered toxic for humans and the environment. Both cancerous and non-cancerous complications are possible after arsenic exposure. Target organs include the liver, lungs, kidney, heart, and brain. Arsenic-induced neurotoxicity, the main focus of our study, can occur in central and peripheral nervous systems. Symptoms can develop in a few hours, weeks, or years depending on the quantity of arsenic and the duration of exposure. In this review, we aimed to gather all the compounds, natural and chemical, that have been studied as protective agents in cellular, animal, and human reports. Oxidative stress, apoptosis, and inflammation are frequently described as destructive mechanisms in heavy metal toxicity. Moreover, reduced activity of acetylcholinesterase, the altered release of monoamine neurotransmitters, down-regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, and decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor are important underlying mechanisms of arsenic-induced neurotoxicity. As for neuroprotection, though some compounds have yet limited data, there are others, such as curcumin, resveratrol, taurine, or melatonin which have been studied more deeply and might be closer to a reliable protective agent. We collected the available information on all protective agents and the mechanisms by which they fight against arsenic-induced neurotoxicity.
Authors: Mersedeh Shayan, Samira Barangi, Hossein Hosseinzadeh, Soghra Mehri
; Full Source: Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 2023 Mar 3;113691. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2023.113691.