Growth of human populations and increased human activity, particularly in coastal areas, increase pressure on coastal ecosystems and the ecosystem services (ES) they provide. As a means toward being able to assess impact of multiple stressors on ES the authors propose a seven-step conceptual approach for assessing effects of chemical mixtures and other stressors on ES in coastal areas: A: Identify the relevant problem(s) and policy aims B: identify temporal and spatial boundaries; C: identify relevant ES; D: identify relevant stressors (e.g. chemicals; E: translate impacts into ES units; F: assess cumulative risk in ES units; G: Rank stressors based on their contribution to adverse effects on ES; and H: implement regulation and management as appropriate and necessary. Two illustrative case studies (Swedish coastal waters and a coastal lagoon in Costa Rica) are provided, one that focuses on chemicals affecting human food supply and one that addresses pesticide run-off and trade-offs among ES. The two cases are used to highlight challenges of such risk assessments, including use of standardised versus ES-relevant test species; data completeness; and trade-offs among ES. Lessons learned from the two case studies are discussed in relation to environmental risk assessment and management of chemical mixtures.
Authors: Syberg K, Banta G, Bruce P, Gunnarsson JS, Gustavsson M, Munns WR Jr, Rämö R, Selck H, Backhaus T. ;Full Source: Integrated Environmental Assessment & Management. 2016 Sep 23. doi: 10.1002/ieam.1849. [fusion_builder_container hundred_percent=”yes” overflow=”visible”][fusion_builder_row][fusion_builder_column type=”1_1″ background_position=”left top” background_color=”” border_size=”” border_color=”” border_style=”solid” spacing=”yes” background_image=”” background_repeat=”no-repeat” padding=”” margin_top=”0px” margin_bottom=”0px” class=”” id=”” animation_type=”” animation_speed=”0.3″ animation_direction=”left” hide_on_mobile=”no” center_content=”no” min_height=”none”][Epub ahead of print] ;[/fusion_builder_column][/fusion_builder_row][/fusion_builder_container]