Toxicity and Estrogenicity of Bisphenol TMC in Oryzias melastigma via In Vivo and In Silico Studies


Bisphenol 4-[1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexyl] phenol (BPTMC), as a substitute for bisphenol A, has been detected in environments. However, the ecotoxicological data of BPTMC are extremely scarce. Here, the lethality, developmental toxicity, locomotor behavior, and estrogenic activity of BPTMC at different concentrations (0.25-2000 μg/L) in marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) embryos were examined. In addition, the in silico binding potentials of O. melastigma estrogen receptors (omEsrs) with BPTMC were assessed by docking study. Low-concentration BPTMC exposure (including an environmentally relevant concentration, 0.25 μg/L) resulted in stimulating effects, including hatching rate, heart rate, malformation rate, and swimming velocity. However, elevated concentrations of BPTMC led to an inflammatory response, changed heart rate and swimming velocity in the embryos and larvae. In the meantime, BPTMC (including 0.25 μg/L) altered the concentrations of estrogen receptor, vitellogenin, and endogenous 17 β-estradiol as well as the transcriptional levels of estrogen-responsive genes in the embryos or/and larvae. Furthermore, elaborate tertiary structures of omEsrs were built by ab initio modeling, and BPTMC exerted potent binding potential with three omEsrs with -47.23, -49.23, and -50.30 kJ/mol for Esr1, Esr2a, and Esr2b, respectively. This work suggests that BPTMC has potent toxicity and estrogenic effects in O. melastigma.

Authors: Xiao-Pei Li, Shu-Qing Qiu, Guo-Yong Huang, Dong-Qiao Lei, Chen-Si Wang, Lingtian Xie, Guang-Guo Ying
; Full Source: Environmental science & technology 2023 Feb 16. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.2c08009.