Toxicity of nickel to soil microbial community with and without the presence of its mineral collectors-a calorimetric approach

The toxicity of nickel and three of its main collectors, sodium isopropyl xanthate (SIPX), sodium ethyl xanthate (SEX), and potassium ethyl xanthate (PEX) to soil microbial activity, was analysed, individually and as a binary combination of nickel and each of the collectors. The investigation was performed through the microcalorimetric analysis method. For the single chemicals, all power-time curves exhibited lag, exponential, stationary, and death phases of microbial growth. Different parameters exhibited a significant adverse effect of the analysed chemicals on soil microbial activity, with a positive relationship between the inhibitory ratio and the chemical dose (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). A peak power reduction level of 24.23% was noted for 50 ?g g(-1) soil in the case of Ni while for the mineral collectors, only 5 ?g g(-1) soil and 50 ?g g(-1) soil induced a peak power reduction level of over 35 and 50%, respectively, in general. The inhibitory ratio ranged in the following order: PEX > SEX > SIPX > Ni. Similar behaviour was observed with the mixture toxicity whose inhibitory ratio substantially decreased (maximum decrease of 38.35%) and slightly increased (maximum increase of 15.34%), in comparison with the single toxicity of mineral collectors and nickel, respectively. The inhibitory ratio of the mixture toxicity was positively correlated (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) with the total dose of the mixture. In general, the lesser and higher toxic effects are those of mixtures containing SIPX and PEX, respectively. Authors: Bararunyeretse P, Ji H, Yao J. ;Full Source: Environmental Science & Pollution Research International. 2017 May 11. doi: 10.1007/s11356-017-9127-x. [Epub ahead of print] ;