Triphenylmethane dye (C52H54N4O12) is potentially a hazardous substance in edible freshwater fish at trace level: toxicity, hematology, biochemistry, antioxidants, and molecular docking evaluation study


Malachite green (C52H54N4O12) is a synthetic dye that is used in textile industries as a colorant and in aquaculture sectors to contain microbial damage. Aquatic contamination of malachite green (MG) has been reported globally. Fish is the highest trophic organism among aquatic inhabitants, highly sensitive to waterborne contaminants (metals, coloring agents, etc.). Toxicity of waterborne chemicals on nontarget organisms can be determined by assessing biomarkers. Assessing blood parameters and tissue antioxidants (enzymatic and nonenzymatic) is useful to evaluate MG toxicity. To initiate the MG toxicity data for freshwater fish (Cyprinus carpio), the median lethal toxicity was primarily evaluated. Then, hematological, blood biochemical (glucose, protein, and cholesterol) and tissue biochemical (amino acids, lipids), and vital tissue (gills, liver, and kidney) antioxidant capacity (CAT, LPO, GST, GR, POxy, vitamin C, and GSH) of C. carpio were analyzed under acute (LC50-96 h) and sublethal (Treatment I-1/10th and Treatment II-1/5th LC50-96 h) exposure periods (28 days). Molecular docking for MG with hemoglobin was also obtained. Biomarkers examined were affected in the MG-treated groups with respect to the control group. Significant changes (p < 0.05) were observed in hematology (Hb, RBCs, and WBCs), glucose, proteins, lipids and tissue CAT, LPO, and GST activities under acute MG exposure. In sublethal treatment groups, biomarkers studied were significant (p < 0.05) throughout the study period. The potential for MG binding to hemoglobin was tested in this study. MG is potentially a multiorgan toxicant. Literally a chemical that is harmful to the aquatic environment if safety is concerned.

Authors: Rama-Krishnan Poopal, Rajan Ashwini, Mathan Ramesh, Bin Li, Zongming Ren
; Full Source: Environmental science and pollution research international. 2022 Nov 19. doi: 10.1007/s11356-022-24206-y.