Using biomarkers in sewage to monitor community-wide human health: Isoprostanes as conceptual prototype

This study reviews the use of biomarkers in sewage to monitor community-wide human health, particularly isoprostanes as a conceptual prototype. The new concept, community health assessment by Sewage Chemical Information Mining (SCIM) to quickly gauge overall, aggregate health status, or small-area population trends is described. An approach, BioSCIM, would monitor raw sewage for specific biomarkers broadly associated with human disease, stress, or health. Bio-SCIM holds potential to capitalise on the presence of biomarkers in sewage to accomplish multiple objectives. Raw sewage sampling/analysis holds great potential to quickly detect aggregate biomarker concentrations for entire communities. Topics discussed include: biomarkers in sewage (BioSCIM); generalised approach to develop a BioSCIM application; reference intervals: normal versus stressed; sewage chemical information mining (SCIM) [fusion_builder_container hundred_percent=”yes” overflow=”visible”][fusion_builder_row][fusion_builder_column type=”1_1″ background_position=”left top” background_color=”” border_size=”” border_color=”” border_style=”solid” spacing=”yes” background_image=”” background_repeat=”no-repeat” padding=”” margin_top=”0px” margin_bottom=”0px” class=”” id=”” animation_type=”” animation_speed=”0.3″ animation_direction=”left” hide_on_mobile=”no” center_content=”no” min_height=”none”][evolution of SCIM concept from FEUDS (forensic epidemiology using drugs in sewage) to ASAP-SCIM (analysis of small populations) to BioSCIM]; biomarkers; effect of biomarkers suitable for BioSCIM (isoprostanes as biomarkers of systemic, system-wide oxidative stress, isoprostanes background, isoprostanes as biomarkers of exposure and effects); factors and variables affecting regulation of isoprostane production: disease, lifestyle, and genetics; isoprostane analysis and complications versus published data; isoprostane excretion data (examples of maximum magnitude urinary isoprostane concentrations, urinary isoprostane ranges for apparently healthy populations, intra- and inter-individual variations in urinary isoprostane concentrations, biliary (and faecal) excretion); differential stress index: increasing sensitivity of BioSCIM by also measuring health biomarkers to device a normalised stress or homeostasis (health biomarkers: anti-inflammatory eicosanoids, other potential markers of positive health for use as denominators for differential stress analysis, F3 isoprostanes); consideration of other SCIM biomarkers; biomarker profiles and community-wide allostasis; potential role of BioSCIM in revealing health disparities; and BioSCIM limitations.

Author: Daughton, Christian G. ;Full Source: Science of the Total Environment [online computer file] 2012, 424, 16-38 (Eng) ;