A swinging seesaw as a novel model mechanism for time-dependent hormesis under dose-dependent stimulatory and inhibitory effects: A case study on the toxicity of antibacterial chemicals to Aliivibrio fischeri

Hormesis occurs frequently in broadly ranging biological areas (e.g. plant biology, microbiology, biogerontology), toxicology, pharmacology and medicine. While numerous mechanisms (e.g. receptor and pathway mediated pathway responses) account for stimulatory and inhibitory features of hormetic dose responses, the vast majority emphasises the inclusion of many doses but only one timepoint or use of a single optimised dose that is assessed over a broad range of timepoints. In this research, a toxicity study was designed using a large number of properly spaced doses with responses determined over a large number of timepoints, which could help us reveal the underlying mechanism of hormesis. The authors present the results of a dose-time-response study on hormesis using five antibacterial chemicals on the bioluminescence of Aliivibrio fischeri, measuring expression of protein mRNA based on quorum sensing, simulating bioluminescent reaction and analysing toxic actions of test chemicals. The findings show dose-time-dependent responses conforming to the hormetic dose-response model, while revealing unique response dynamics between agent induced stimulatory and inhibitory effects within bacterial growth phase dynamics. These dynamic dose-time features reveal a type of biological seesaw model that integrates stimulatory and inhibitory responses within unique growth phase, dose and time features, which has faultlessly explained the time-dependent hormetic phenomenon induced by five antibacterial chemicals (characterized by low-dose stimulation and high-dose inhibition). The authors concluded that this study offers advances in understanding cellular dynamics, the biological integration of diverse and opposing responses and their role in evolutionary adaptive strategies to chemicals, which can provide new insight into the mechanistic investigation of hormesis.

Authors: Sun H, Calabrese EJ, Zheng M, Wang D, Pan Y, Lin Z, Liu Y. ; Full Source: Chemosphere. 2018 Aug; 205:15-23. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.04.043. Epub 2018 Apr 10.

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