Eryptosis-inducing activity of bisphenol A and its analogues in human red blood cells (in vitro study)
Bisphenols are important chemicals that are widely used in the manufacturing of polycarbonates, epoxy resin and thermal paper, and thus the exposure of humans to these substances has been noted. The purpose of this study was to assess eryptotic changes in human erythrocytes exposed (in vitro) to bisphenol A (BPA) and its selected analogues, i.e., bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol S (BPS) and bisphenol AF (BPAF). The erythrocytes were incubated with compounds studied at concentrations ranging from 1 to 250?g/mL for 4, 12 or 24h. The results showed that BPA and its analogues increased cytosolic calcium ions level with the strongest effect noted for BPAF. It has also been revealed that all bisphenols analysed, and BPAF and BPF in particular increased phosphatidylserine translocation in red blood cells, which confirmed that they exhibited eryptotic potential in this cell type. Furthermore, it was shown that BPA and its analogues caused significant increase in calpain and caspase-3 activities, while the strongest effect was noted for BPAF. BPS, which is the main substituent of bisphenol A in polymers and thermal paper production exhibited similar eryptotic potential to BPA. Eryptotic changes in human erythrocytes were provoked by bisphenols at concentrations, which may influence the human body during occupational exposure or subacute poisoning with these compounds.
Authors: Ma?czak A, Cyrkler M, Bukowska B, Micha?owicz J. ;Full Source: Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2016 Jan 2; 307:328-335. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2015.12.057. [Epub ahead of print] ;