Gold (AuNPs, 12.8 nm) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs, 10 nm), mixed or separate, were injected into the caudal vein of male Sprague-Dawley rats for 4 weeks. The rats were allowed to recover for further 4 weeks to examine the differences in AuNP/AgNP tissue distribution and clearance. The size distribution of injected AuNPs and AgNPs were not statistically different. The dose groups (five males per group for the administration and three males for the recovery) consisted of seven divisions, i.e., control, AgNPs (with a low dose of 10 µg/kg/day, and, a high dose of 100 µg/kg/day), AuNPs (with a low dose of 10 µg/kg/day, and, a high dose of 100 µg/kg/day), as well as mixed AgNPs/AuNPs (with a low dose of 10/10 µg/kg/day, and a high dose of 100/100 µg/kg/day). The AgNPs accumulated in a dose-dependent manner in the liver, spleen, kidneys, lung, brain, testis or blood. Au concentration increased also in a dose-dependent manner in the liver, kidneys, spleen and lungs, but not in the brain, testis and blood. Ag concentration in the tissues increased dose-dependently after 4 weeks of AgNP/AuNP mixed administration, but to a much lower extent than those observed when they were administered separately. Ag concentration in the tissues after 4 weeks of AgNP/AuNP mixed administration cleared dose-dependently after 4 weeks of recovery. Au concentration in the tissues increased dose-dependently after 4 weeks of AgNp/AuNP mixed administration, while Au concentration in the tissues did not clear as seen in Ag after 4 weeks recovery. Au concentration showed biopersistency or accumulation in the liver, kidneys, spleen and brain of the 4 weeks of recovery. In conclusion, AgNPs and AuNPs showed different toxicokinetic properties and the mixed administration of AgNPs with AuNPs resulted in mutual reduction of their tissue distribution which appeared to be due to competitive inhibition. Furthermore, this subacute intravenous injection study has suggested that these nanoparticles were distributed to the organs in particulate instead of ionic forms.
Authors: Lee JH, Sung JH, Ryu HR, Song KS, Song NW, Park HM, Shin BS, Ahn K, Gulumian M, Faustman EM, Yu IJ. ; Full Source: Archives in Toxicology. 2018 Feb 15. doi: 10.1007/s00204-018-2173-4. [Epub ahead of print]